Lack of such a quality can and most likely will cause a struggling town or city to fall into the extremes of poverty and wealth. The New England community was so strong and so supportive in comparison to that of the Chesapeake Bay, that it is no wonder they developed into two distinctly different cultures before the year
Class hierarchy[ edit ] Much like the old worldcolonial America was divided into a rigid social structure. Pedigree mattered more than anything, and wealthy, English families stood at the top of the social ladder. These families often controlled vast numbers of workers as well.
These workers, the African American Slaves, were the lowliest of those living in the colonies, standing below even the indentured workers who powered much of the new world. Though some were honest men, wishing to scrape out a new life in the new world, many of these men were criminals, waifs, and convicts, sent to the new world as punishment.
The largest social class in the South and Chesapeake regions were the merchants, vendors and small farmers of the colonies.
These people were the rank and file citizens, moderately educated and skilled, but willing to work hard and create the America they needed. In this class, etiquette was rigidly enforced; no one was allowed to "dress above their station" and were forced to sit in church according to their own social standing.
Alexander Hamilton — was a Scottish-born doctor and writer who lived and worked in Annapolis, Maryland. The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton is "the best single portrait of men and manners, of rural and urban life, of the wide range of society and scenery in colonial America.
A lot of land was given to tobacco plantations because there was such a high demand for the good in Europe.
Therefore, plantation owners began to import slaves from Africa to do the work. The slaves were taken from their families in Africa and worked all day cultivating, drying leaves, and packing the tobacco.
Many slaves tried to escape from their owners but very few succeeded. Generally they were taken back to the plantation and whipped hundreds of times or castrated as punishment.
Experienced slaves were brought from Africa to cultivate rice and indigo. By the 18th century the slave population outnumbered the white population. Lawmakers feared the growing African population, so they began to enforce restrictions on the number of black people that were imported.
Another way they controlled the population was executing slaves convicted of violence against a white. James Oglethorpeone of the Georgia Trustees strongly resisted pressure from South Carolina to introduce slavery late in life Oglethorpe was closely associated with Granville Sharp and other leading abolitionists.
However, by powerful South Carolina interests and their allies had clandestinely brought so many slaves into Georgia that the Georgia Trustees were unable to stem the tide. The young colony soon became a satellite of South Carolina, and in a few years had 15, enslaved black people working on the plantations.
By the early 18th century the slave population outnumbered the white population. Immigration[ edit ] The first successful settlement in the Chesapeake, Jamestownwas set up by the Virginia Company and therefore its population was made up mostly of English.
Because of its large reliance on labor for tobacco plantations that fueled the economy, the Chesapeake relied on indentured servants to work the land.
This was a gradual shift by the 18th century but by the population of Virginia had skyrocketed toand was almost evenly divided between African and European peoples. Although it was intended as a refuge for Catholics a significant part of the population was Protestants and Protestants gained control of the colony during the English Civil Wars.
While North Carolina adopted the practices and economy of Virginia due to similar environmental set up and immigrant ethnicity, South Carolina developed differently because of the large influx of immigrants from Barbados.
This diversity then led to their split with time. By the early 18th century the English government had restricted the immigration of English people to the colonies which caused a growing number of Scotch-Irish and Germans to emigrate.
These people tended to settle in the back country and away from the more developed coastal areas.
Except for children of the elite, all others were expected to work by age 11 or Although slave marriages were not legally recognized, slaves — particularly females — did what they could to Urban and rural structure[ edit ] Most large population centers in colonial America were located in New England or the Middle Colonies.
These cities served as major seaports for the colonies in their trade with Europe, African, and the Caribbean. They were highly stratified by wealth.
In the Chesapeake and Southern regions, society was based heavily on agriculture, and therefore the landscape was much more rural. A large portion of land in the South was frontier "back country" that was less settled and abutted Indian land.
The agricultural land was organized into a plantation system: Bondspeople worked the land. These workers were indentured servants or, increasingly as the trade became more established, African slaves. The remainder of the population was those who were neither landed gentry nor slaves.Most large population centers in colonial America were located in New England or the Middle Colonies.
In the Chesapeake Bay area cities included the Chesapeake region and the southern colonies were subject to the powerful influences of their Colonial history of the United States, including French and Spanish colonization in the South;.
- New England vs. Chesapeake While both the people of the New England region and of the Chesapeake region descended from the same English origin, by both regions had traveled in two diverse directions. While New England was a land of towns and villages surrounded by small farms, Virginia and Maryland were characterized by large plantations and little urban development.
The emphasis on indentured labor meant that relatively few women settled in the Chesapeake colonies. The colonial history of the United States covers the There was a generally higher economic standing and standard of living in New England than in the Chesapeake.
New England became an important mercantile and shipbuilding center, along with agriculture, fishing, and logging, serving as the hub for trading between the southern colonies and. Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by the people of English origin, by the regions had evolved into two distinct societies.4/4(1).
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