Though there is archaeological evidence that societies have been living in Nigeria for more than twenty-five hundred years, the borders of modern Nigeria were not created until the British consolidated their colonial power over the area in The name Nigeria was suggested by British journalist Flora Shaw in the s.
Early Nigerian cultures The Nok culture Evidence of human occupation in Nigeria dates back thousands of years. The oldest fossil remains found by archaeologists in the southwestern area of Iwo Eleru, near Akurehave been dated to about bce. There are isolated collections of ancient tools and artifacts of different periods of the Stone Agebut the oldest recognizable evidence of an organized society belongs to the Nok culture c.
Named for the village of Nok, site of some of the finds, the ancient culture produced fine terra-cotta figurines, which were accidentally discovered by tin miners on the Jos Plateau in the s.
Its people raised crops and cattle and seem to have paid particular attention to personal adornment, especially of the hair. Distinctive features of Nok art include naturalism, stylized treatment of the mouth and eyes, relative proportions of the human head, body, and feet, distortions of the human facial features, and treatment of animal forms.
The spread of Nok-type figures in a wide area south of the Jos Plateaucovering southern Kaduna state southeastward to Katsina Ala, south of the Benue Riversuggests a well-established culture that left traces still identifiable in the lives of the peoples of the area today.
Many of the distinctive features of Nok art can also be traced in later developments of Nigerian art produced in such places as Igbo Ukwu, IfeEsie, and Benin City.
Pottery head found at Nok, Nigeria. In the Jos Museum, Nigeria.
See also African art. They reveal not only a high artistic tradition but also a well-structured society with wide-ranging economic relationships. Of particular interest is the source of the copper and lead used to make the bronzes, which may have been Tadmekka in the Sahara, and of the coloured glass beads, some of which may have come from Venice and Indiathe latter via trade routes through Egypt, the Nile valley, and the Chad basin.
It is believed that the bronzes were part of the furniture in the burial chamber of a high personage, possibly a forerunner of the eze nri, a priest-king, who held religious but not political power over large parts of the Igbo -inhabited region well into the 20th century.
Kingdoms and empires of precolonial Nigeria Many indigenous polities emerged in Nigeria before the British took control in the late 19th century. Smaller kingdoms included those of the IgalaNupeand Ebira.
The lake was then much larger than the present-day body of water, and its basin attracted settlements and encouraged exchange. A pastoral group, ancestors of the Kanuriestablished a centralized state over those referred to collectively as the Sao. Initially, trading links extended to the Nile valley of Egypt.
There is some evidence that Kanem had made contact with the Christian kingdoms of Nubia before it was overrun by Muslims, who gained a foothold in the ruling family of Kanem in the 11th century. From Kanem the rulers tried to dominate the areas south and west of the lake as well.
By the 12th century they had been compelled by attacks from the Sao to move their capital to the region west of Lake Chad, and they gradually lost control of most of the original Kanem. For a long time, Borno was the dominant power in the central Sudanincluding much of Hausaland.
The Bayajidda legendconcerning a mythical Middle Eastern ancestor of the Hausa, seems to suggest that the rise of a centralized political system in Hausaland was influenced from Borno.
Though the rulers of Borno embraced Islamthe structure of the monarchy remained traditional, with the queen mother and other female officials exercising considerable power.
The selection of the monarch, the coronation rites, and other bases of royal authority were dictated by pre-Islamic beliefs. The princes and other members of the royal family were granted fiefs and posted away from the capital to govern frontier zones, while people of slave origin were preferred for the royal guard and palace officials.
Hausaland For centuries the Hausa have occupied the northern plains beyond the Jos Plateau, which were a crossroads open not only to Borno but also to the states of Mali and Songhai in the western Sudan, the trans-Saharan routes to northern Africa, and various trade routes to the forest areas of BorguOyo, and Benin.
Perhaps because of this strategic location, the Hausa developed a number of centralized states—such as DauraKatsina, Kano, Zaria, Gobir, and, later, Kebbi—each with a walled city, a market centre, and a monarchical system of government.
Islam, which was introduced from the Mali empire in the 14th century, strengthened both the monarchical system and the commercial contacts, but it remained predominantly an urban religion until the beginning of the 19th century.
Even within the walled cities, however, some pre-Islamic rites remained part of the ceremonies that sustained monarchical authority.
A considerable rivalry existed between the different states over agricultural land and the control of trade and trade routes, and Hausaland was periodically conquered by powerful neighbours such as Borno and Songhai. Yorubaland and Benin Ife, which flourished between the 11th and 15th centuries, emerged as a major power in the forested areas west of the Niger and south of Hausaland.History of Nigeria.
Jump to navigation Jump to search. This History of the Yoruba people; Nigeria portal: In Kaduna in February–May over 1, people died in rioting over the introduction of criminal Shar'ia in the State. Hundreds of ethnic Hausa were . The brief history of Christianity in Nigeria The first attempts to bring Christianity to the area where the modern country is today date back to the s and s.
However, despite all the efforts of the Portuguese missionaries, there was not much fruit from this. Yoruba wedding introduction in Nigeria -Marriage is an institution and basically everyone will get married one day. The process of getting marriage can be .
It examined the history of Christianity in Nigeria. It also discussed the emergent of Yorùbá Keywords: Religion, Christian worship, African culture, Christianity, Yoruba culture 1. Introduction The Yorùbá traditional society is a corporate and religious society.
Ogungbile () identifies two major Influence of Yoruba Culture in. INTRODUCTION The Yoruba religion is the religious belief and practice of the Yoruba people both in Africa (chiefly in Nigeria and Benin Republic), and in the Americas. It has influenced and given birth to several Afro-American religions such as Santeria in Cuba and Candomble in Brazil.
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