Competition circulation and advertising newspaper research journal

Organizations such as trade unions, religious groups, corporations or clubs may have their own newspapers, but the term is more commonly used to refer to daily or weekly publications that bring news of general interest to large portions of the public in a specific geographic area. The United States had 1, general-circulation daily newspapers in -- 14 percent fewer than it had inbefore the arrival of television. The news in general-circulation newspapers is gathered and then written up by reporters. Photographers shoot pictures to accompany the stories and graphic artists contribute charts and diagrams.

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Since the mids, when the conflict started, there have been times of severe media censorship affecting the course of the war. Sincewhen a new government led by Chandrika Bandaranayake Kumaratunga took office promising to uphold an Election Manifesto that would assure fundamental freedoms—including freedom of the press—conditions improved markedly, although censorship restrictions were re-imposed in June There is no room for complacency, however, as AI and other bodies like the Physicians for Human Rights have been concerned about the "apparent failure" of the Sri Lankan government to live up to its international commitment to human rights and its failure to bring the perpetrators of past human rights violations to justice.

In the fourth century B. After Buddhism split into Mahayana and Theravada sects in India, the Sinhalese adhered to Theravada, which is the faith that endures to this day among the Sinhalese majority. As Buddhism disappeared from most of India, it remained strong in Sri Lanka, where the adherents of that faith from mainland southeast Asia particularly from Pegu in lower Myanmar turned for continued guidance.

The second most populous ethnic community in Sri Lanka is the Tamils, who trace their ancestry to the influx from Tamilnadu during the British colonial times as plantation laborers.

There are other Tamils who trace their ancestry to groups of Dravidians from South India, who invaded the northern and eastern parts of the island, possibly from the eleventh century A. In the colonial era, the southern coastal areas first came under Portuguese control in the beginning of the sixteenth century, a situation that remained in place for a century and a half.

Most of the Catholics who live in Sri Lanka trace their ancestry to those who were converted to that faith by the Portuguese. In the Dutch took over from the Portuguese and maintained colonial control until At that time, Great Britain realized the strategic importance of the island for the growing British empire and made Sri Lanka or Ceylon, as it was known then another piece of the still-expanding British dominion.

Britain formalized its possession at the Congress of Vienna in The British administered Sri Lanka separately from their Indian Empire, relinquishing control over the island nation inone year after they left the Indian subcontinent. The conflict has compelled the government to impose a variety of restrictions on constitutionally guaranteed fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press.

At various times, censorship has been imposed on newspapers as well as on the electronic media; journalists have been physically assaulted, a few even killed; and there have been court confrontations between the journalists and the government. For Tamils, most of whose ancestors who were brought to the country in the nineteenth century by the British to work on the tea estates in the central highlands, the amendment to the Parliamentary Elections Order in Council in eliminating their franchise rights came as a shock.

Before independence, many Tamils had played an important role in the government, largely because of their proficiency in English. The Tamils felt further alienated when Prime Minister S. When he took office, the Official Language Act made the campaign promise a reality.

In and inSri Lanka and India agreed to extend citizenship to some of the Tamils;sapproximatelyobtained Sri Lankan citizenship at that time, while approximatelychose Indian citizenship.

Of the latter, about 85, who accepted the Indian offer but still decided to stay in Sri Lanka became "stateless," without a passport or any official identification; these people were often subject to harassment by the security forces.

They could not own land and had no right to vote. Subsequently, as the U.

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State Department Report on Human Rights for observed, "the struggle for cultural affirmation, political representation, economic advancement and linguistic parity between Sinhalese and Tamils ended in violence and armed conflict.

This was followed by scores of murders of police officers, politicians, and bureaucrats. The government made some efforts to meet the Tamil demands. For example, the Constitution of recognized Tamil as a "national language" for public administration and the courts, but the Tamils remained dissatisfied because their language was still not recognized for university admissions or public office.

Also, the government promised to establish regional councils with substantial autonomy, but such councils failed to materialize. Bythe conflict assumed ominous proportions with a phenomenal increase in killings on both sides. Over the next two years, nearlyTamils fled to South India, where the Tamilnadu government housed them in camps.

Prabhakaran, who returned to Jaffna and launched a new offensive. Despite such a murderous civil war, Sri Lanka maintained its parliamentary democracy and, within reasonable restrictions, the fundamental rights of its citizens and an independent judiciary.

In the May presidential elections, Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga was voted in as president. Her peace talks with the LTTE began in October and lasted days, but the talks failed and hostilities resumed.

Inthe LTTE mounted a major offensive. In response, the government launched its own campaign called "Jaya Sikurui" or "Victory Assured," its longest 20 months, from May 13,to December 4, and costliest offensive to date.

In the January elections in the northern areas, five Tamil parties participated, including four which had fought against the Sri Lankan army. The LTTE boycotted the elections.

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The PA and the UNP, the two principal parties in the country, did not participate because they wanted to leave the field to the Tamil parties. Only 28 percent of registered voters cast their ballot. By mid, the LTTE had regained large parts of the Jaffna Peninsula and control over the jungles behind the lagoons in the eastern province.

The government was frustrated at the failure of several policy initiatives to subjugate the LTTE, ranging from negotiations and military strikes to getting the United States to declare LTTE a terrorist organization.History of Newspapers.

By Mitchell Stephens. For Collier's Encyclopedia (article on History of Television from Grolier Encyclopedia) NEWSPAPER, a publication that appears regularly and frequently, and carries news about a wide variety of current regardbouddhiste.comzations such as trade unions, religious groups, corporations or clubs .

Daily, Weekly, and Other Periodicals The Dutch are among EU members' most avid newspaper readers. Almost 5 million newspapers were sold daily to a nation of million people in , making for a daily circulation of per 1, inhabitants. Daily, Weekly, and Other Periodicals The Dutch are among EU members' most avid newspaper readers.

Almost 5 million newspapers were sold daily to a nation of million people in , making for a daily circulation of per 1, inhabitants. The decline of newspapers has been widely debated, as the industry has faced slumping ad sales, the loss of much classified advertising and precipitous drops in circulation.

In recent years the number of newspapers slated for closure, bankruptcy or severe cutbacks has risen, especially in the United States, where the industry has shed a fifth of its journalists since A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events..

Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business, sports and art, and often include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, obituaries, birth notices, crosswords, editorial cartoons, comic strips, .

A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business, sports and art, and often include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, obituaries, birth notices, crosswords, editorial cartoons, comic strips, and advice columns.

History of Newspapers - Mitchell Stephens