Occasionally, a student will list the proverbial advice to write to your congressperson but when asked how many have actually done that, only one or two respond, indicating it was not part of their education.
In fact, as J.
The wealth of the ancient city-states of Venice and Genoa was based on their powerful navies, and treaties with other great powers to control trade. This evolved into nations designing their trade policies to intercept the wealth of others mercantilism.
Occasionally one powerful country would overwhelm another through interception of its wealth though a trade war, covert war, or hot war; but the weaker, less developed countries usually lose in these exchanges.
It is the military power of the more developed countries that permits them to dictate the terms of trade and maintain unequal relationships. As European and American economies grew, they needed to continue expansion to maintain the high standards of living that some elites were attaining in those days.
This required holding on to, and expanding colonial territories in order to gain further access to the raw materials and resources, as well exploiting cheap labor. Those who resisted were often met with brutal repression or military interventions.
This is not a controversial perception.
Find A+ essays, research papers, book notes, course notes and writing tips. Millions of students use StudyMode to jumpstart their assignments. Essay on Green Marketing and CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is one of the most recognized aspects in the world today since companies’ reputation is judged from its CSR policies, quality of its services and products and competitiveness. Corporate Social Responsibility And International Business Ethics Essay Corporate social responsibility (CSR) encompasses the economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic and discretionary expectations that society has of a firm at a given point in time.
President Woodrow Wilson recognized this in the early part of the 20th century: Since trade ignores national boundaries and the manufacturer insists on having the world as a market, the flag of his nation must follow him, and the doors of the nations which are closed against him must be battered down.
Concessions obtained by financiers must be safeguarded by ministers of state, even if the sovereignty of unwilling nations be outraged in the process. Colonies must be obtained or planted, in order that no useful corner of the world may be overlooked or left unused.
Richard Robbins, Professor of Anthropology and author of Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism is also worth quoting at length: The Great Global Depression of that lasted essentially until was the first great manifestation of the capitalist business crisis.
The depression was not the first economic crisis [as there had been many for thousands of years] but the financial collapse of revealed the degree of global economic integration, and how economic events in one part of the globe could reverberate in others.
Given this situation, if you were an American or European investor inwhere would you look for economic expansion?
The Social Construction of Masculinity - Sex and gender are attributes to our identity. Sex describes the physical and biological factors we are born with, for example male or female genitalia, as quoted from blackadder “A boy without a winkle is a girl” (Elton and Curtis ). 1. Harold Wilensky put it baldly and succinctly: "Economic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development." Harold Wilensky, The Welfare State and Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, ), p. 2. Thus, Flora and Alber find no correlation between levels of industrialization and social insurance programs of 12 European nations between the s and the s. Introduction Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept which is still evolving and varies widely in the principles regardbouddhiste.com is for companies to enhance their public image and reputation by a voluntary act(Lii & Lee, ).
The obvious answer was to expand European and American power overseas, particularly into areas that remained relatively untouched by capitalist expansion — Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. Colonialism had become, in fact, a recognized solution to the need to expand markets, increase opportunities for investors, and ensure the supply of raw material.
In Rhodes said: I was in the East End of London yesterday and attended a meeting of the unemployed. I listened to the wild speeches, which were just a cry for breadbread, and on my way home I pondered over the scene and I became more than ever convinced of the importance of imperialism.
The Empire, as I have always said, is a bread and butter question. If you want to avoid civil war, you must become imperialist. As a result of this cry for imperialist expansion, people all over the world were converted into producers of export crops as millions of subsistence farmers were forced to become wage laborers producing for the market and required to purchase from European and American merchants and industrialists, rather than supply for themselves, their basic needs.
World War II was another such battle, perhaps the ultimate one. However, the former imperial nations realized that to fight like this is not the way, and became more cooperative instead. The Soviet attempt of an independent path to development flawed that it was, because of its centralized, paranoid and totalitarian perspectiveswas a threat to these centers of capital because their own colonies might get the wrong idea and also try for an independent path to their development.
Because World War II left the empires weak, the colonized countries started to break free. In some places, where countries had the potential to bring more democratic processes into place and maybe even provide an example for their neighbors to follow it threatened multinational corporations and their imperial or former imperial states for example, by reducing access to cheap resources.
As a result, their influence, power and control was also threatened. Often then, military actions were sanctioned.
To the home populations, the fear of communism was touted, even if it was not the case, in order to gain support. From Colonization to Globalization, Ocean Press,p. Hence, there is no surprise that some of the main World War II rivals, USA, Germany and Japan as well as other European nations are so prosperous, while the former colonial countries are still so poor; the economic booms of those wealthy nations have been at the expense of most people around the world.
Thus, to ensure this unequal success, power, and advantage globalization was backed up with military might and still is. Hence, even with what seemed like the end of imperialism and colonialism at the end of World War II, and the promotion of Adam Smith free trade and free markets, mercantilist policies still continued.
Adam Smith exposed the previous system as mercantilist and unjust. He then proposed free market capitalism as the alternative.
More about this in the next section on this site.Corporate Social Responsibility is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms.
Founded in , Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections, both formal and informal, to Princeton University. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Introduction Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept which is still evolving and varies widely in the principles regardbouddhiste.com is for companies to enhance their public image and reputation by a voluntary act(Lii & Lee, ).
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments regardbouddhiste.comization has grown due to advances in transportation and communication technology. With increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade, ideas, and regardbouddhiste.comization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that.
Abstract. In the current paper, our aim is to explore the latent power dynamics surrounding corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries.