Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase.
To focus and improve all aspects of program design, implementation, and follow-up To demonstrate the overall impact of professional development Level 1: Participants' Reactions The first level of evaluation looks at participants' reactions to the professional development experience.
This is the most common form of professional development evaluations, and the easiest type of information to gather and analyze. At Level 1, you address questions focusing on whether or not participants liked the experience. Did they feel their time was well spent? Did the material make sense to them?
Were the activities well planned and meaningful? Was the leader knowledgeable and helpful? Did the participants find the information useful?
Important questions for professional development workshops and seminars also include, Was the coffee hot and ready on time? Was the room at the right temperature? Were the chairs comfortable?
To some, questions such as these may seem silly and inconsequential. But experienced professional developers know the importance of attending to these basic human needs.
Information on participants' reactions is generally gathered through questionnaires handed out at the end of a session or activity. These questionnaires typically include a combination of rating-scale items and open-ended response questions that allow participants to make personal comments. Because of the general nature of this information, many organizations use the same questionnaire for all their professional development activities.
But measuring participants' initial satisfaction with the experience can help you improve the design and delivery of programs or activities in valid ways. Participants' Learning In addition to liking their professional development experience, we also hope that participants learn something from it.
Level 2 focuses on measuring the knowledge and skills that participants gained. Depending on the goals of the program or activity, this can involve anything from a pencil-and-paper assessment Can participants describe the crucial attributes of mastery learning and give examples of how these might be applied in typical classroom situations?
You can also use oral personal reflections or portfolios that participants assemble to document their learning. Although you can usually gather Level 2 evaluation information at the completion of a professional development activity, it requires more than a standardized form.
Measures must show attainment of specific learning goals. This means that indicators of successful learning need to be outlined before activities begin. You can use this information as a basis for improving the content, format, and organization of the program or activities. Organization Support and Change At Level 3, the focus shifts to the organization.
Lack of organization support and change can sabotage any professional development effort, even when all the individual aspects of professional development are done right. Suppose, for example, that several secondary school educators participate in a professional development program on cooperative learning.
They gain a thorough understanding of the theory and develop a variety of classroom activities based on cooperative learning principles. Organization policies and practices such as these make learning highly competitive and will thwart the most valiant efforts to have students cooperate and help one another learn Guskey, b.
The lack of positive results in this case doesn't reflect poor training or inadequate learning, but rather organization policies that undermine implementation efforts. That's why professional development evaluations must include information on organization support and change.
At Level 3, you need to focus on questions about the organization characteristics and attributes necessary for success. Did the professional development activities promote changes that were aligned with the mission of the school and district?
Were changes at the individual level encouraged and supported at all levels? Were sufficient resources made available, including time for sharing and reflection? Were successes recognized and shared?Internal Control (Chapter 7 Auditing) STUDY. Identify the five components of an organization's internal control.
The five components of internal control include 1) the control environment 2) risk assessment 3) control activities 4) accounting information & communication system. Published: Mon, 5 Dec (1) (A) Briefly explain five external elements in the organisational environment currently impacting on L’Oreal’s management of the Body shop brand.
Five external elements are: Customers; Competitors; Economic forces; Technological forces; Social forces; Customers: Customers plays essential part in .
4 Five Components of an Organization's External Environment; Every organization has its own culture. Almost everything that affects an organization's ability to compete and respond successfully to. Organizational environment denotes internal and external environmental factors influencing organizational activates and decision making.
As the foundation of the organization’s internal environment, it plays a major role in shaping managerial behavior. 5 Components of Internal Control System Organizational Behavior Explained.
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§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics, Adopted (a) The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the school year.