The breakdown of the Carolingian Empire in the later 9th century, combined with the relative stabilization of local European borders after the Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars, meant that there was an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight among themselves and terrorize the peasant population.
This marked the beginning of the Crusades. Those who joined the armed pilgrimage wore a cross as a symbol of the Church. The Crusades set the stage for several religious knightly military orders, including the Knights Templarthe Teutonic Knights, and the Hospitallers.
These groups defended the Holy Land and protected pilgrims traveling to and from the region. In a popular movement known as the Children's Crusadea motley crew including children, adolescents, women, the elderly and the poor marched all the way from the Rhineland to Italy behind a young man named Nicholas, who said he had received divine instruction to march toward the Holy Land.
These groups departed for Byzantium in August In the first major clash between the Crusaders and Muslims, Turkish forces crushed the invading Europeans at Cibotus.
Another group of Crusaders, led by the notorious Count Emicho, carried out a series of massacres of Jews in various towns in the Rhineland indrawing widespread outrage and causing a major crisis in Jewish-Christian relations.
When the four main armies of Crusaders arrived in ConstantinopleAlexius insisted that their leaders swear an oath of loyalty to him and recognize his authority over any land regained from the Turks, as well as any other territory they might conquer.
All but Bohemond resisted taking the oath. The city surrendered in late June. The Fall of Jerusalem Despite deteriorating relations between the Crusaders and Byzantine leaders, the combined force continued its march through Anatolia, capturing the great Syrian city of Antioch in June Second Crusade Having achieved their goal in an unexpectedly short period of time after the First Crusade, many of the Crusaders departed for home.
To govern the conquered territory, those who remained established four large western settlements, or Crusader states, in Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch and Tripoli.
After Louis and Conrad managed to assemble their armies at Jerusalem, they decided to attack the Syrian stronghold of Damascus with an army of some 50, the largest Crusader force yet. The combined Muslim forces dealt a humiliating defeat to the Crusaders, decisively ending the Second Crusade.
Nur al-Din added Damascus to his expanding empire in InSaladin began a major campaign against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
His troops virtually destroyed the Christian army at the battle of Hattin, taking back the important city along with a large amount of territory.
From the recaptured city of Jaffa, Richard reestablished Christian control over some of the region and approached Jerusalem, though he refused to lay siege to the city. In SeptemberRichard and Saladin signed a peace treaty that reestablished the Kingdom of Jerusalem though without the city of Jerusalem and ended the Third Crusade.
In response, the Crusaders declared war on Constantinople, and the Fourth Crusade ended with the devastating Fall of Constantinoplemarked by a bloody conquest, looting and near-destruction of the magnificent Byzantine capital later that year.
Final Crusades Throughout the remainder of the 13th century, a variety of Crusades aimed not so much to topple Muslim forces in the Holy Land but to combat any and all of those seen as enemies of the Christian faith. The Albigensian Crusade aimed to root out the heretical Cathari or Albigensian sect of Christianity in France, while the Baltic Crusades sought to subdue pagans in Transylvania.Nur ad-Din allied himself with Egypt, hoping to have the crusader states completely surrounded.
Nur ad-Din allied himself with Egypt, hoping to have the crusader states completely surrounded. Eventually his inferiors launched some military expeditions and won battles against the crusaders.
Saladin, Nur ad-Din's inferior became vizier of Egypt. The Crusades, which number in eight, lasted from a.d. to a.d. In this paper I will be discussing the major battles and the effects of the Crusades. There were . Traditionalists restrict their definition of the Crusades to the Christian campaigns in the Holy Land, "either to assist the Christians there or to liberate Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulcher", during – The military expeditions planned and fought by western European Christians that began around AD, are known today as the Holy Wars, or the Crusades.
The purpose of these expeditions was to overtake and gain control of the holy land of Jerusalem, from the Muslims. The Crusades The Levant. Although there were many crusades throughout history, the most famous and significant crusades in history occurred during the Middle Ages in the area known as The Levant.
There were at least nine Crusades that took place between the 11th and 13th centuries when troops representing the Roman Catholic Church attempted to spread Christianity into regions of the Middle.