This renaissance was a cultural movement that included the reformation of education and artwork. Famous people in this movement were Leonardo da Vinci, the painter of the Mona Lisa and Michelangelo, the artist who painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Most people only give credit to this era as being the only renaissance because they do not know what renaissance actually means. The term renaissance means a rebirth or revival.
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The early Italian Renaissance Against this political and economic background stands the cultural development of Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries. The term Italian Renaissance has not gone unchallenged; its meaning and boundaries have aroused much controversy.
Nonetheless, the term, redefined, still enjoys overwhelming assent. For some historians such as Lauro Martinesthe Renaissance coincides with the life of the commune, stretching back to the 11th century; for others such as Hans Baronit sprang from the ideological battles that accompanied the wars of Florence and Milan at the beginning of the 15th century.
A majority consensushowever, still conceives of the Italian Renaissance as a period of cultural history having no very sharp chronological boundaries but stretching over the years from about to about Humanism The early Renaissance had two principal characteristics.
Of these the first is humanism, a term that did not carry the present-day ethical or antireligious sense but instead referred to the intensive study of a revived Classical antiquity. As such, it represented not a philosophical system but rather an educational program that largely excluded those subjects taught in the universities: The origins of humanism date back to the Italy of the s, in which one finds, in many cities, friends coming together informally to study the ancient world and attempting to reproduce something of The carolingian renaissance essay spirit of the Latin classics in their own writings.
That the movement should have originated in Italy is not surprising. It was natural that Italians should look back to Romeparticularly since the ruins of Roman civilization still stood about them.
In addition, the study of the great corpus of Roman law in the universities of Padua and Bologna led easily to a wish to understand the society that had produced it. Yet even beyond that, in the secular world of the city-states, where lay literates rather than clerics dominated intellectual life, the secular civilization of the Classical world had an irresistible appeal.
It was not that the humanists were un-Christian, rather that their Christianity was a lay and, in some sense, secularized Christianity. The movement advanced in the middle of the 14th century through the work of two men, eminent both as humanists and for their roles in Italian and European literature: Francesco Petrarca Petrarch ; —74 and Giovanni Boccaccio — It was consolidated at the end of the century, above all in Florence.
Thenceforth humanism dominated intellectual life in the peninsula and later in much of Europeinfluencing vernacular literature, the writing of history, art, education, and style of life.
During the 15th century, for the first time, Florentine Greek studies turned scholars from moral back to metaphysical philosophy. From these sources he went on to develop his own philosophy of Christian Hermeticism, or Neoplatonism.
Subsequently modified and developed by Giovanni Pico della Mirandola —94whose best-known essay bears the significant title Oratio de hominis dignitate ; Oration on the Dignity of Manthis philosophy, which argued that human beings could independently determine their own salvation by following the natural impulses of love and beauty, presented an immensely optimistic view of humanity and its place in the universe.
It was to exercise a strong fascination, particularly over artists and poets, in the following hundred years. The arts and intellectual life Humanism does not by itself comprise the whole of the early Italian Renaissance, which should also be understood as a general intense efflorescence of all the arts and intellectual life.
From the time of Dante and Giotto through that of the great trio of DonatelloBrunelleschiand Masaccio at the beginning of the 15th century and on to the age of the High Renaissance, these years present a picture of extraordinary cultural power.
In examining its social origins, it has been traditional to point to the economic wealth and early capitalist development of central and northern Italy. Certainly, that development allowed the financing of patronage, advanced literacy, and in many ways offered a new way of looking at the world.
Yet high culture developed unevenly throughout the peninsula; for instance, in this period it was insignificant in the great port and thriving economic centre of Genoa.
Therefore, wealth did not simply equate with cultural vitality. Robert Harding Picture Library It was, in fact, strong states unlike Genoa and the peculiar state system of Italy that lay behind most of the intense secular patronage and intellectual life in this period. The communes took responsibility not only for the palazzi comunali, or city halls, and other communal buildings but also for the building, interior furbishing, and maintenance of their cathedrals and other principal churches in these, sometimes specifically excluding any ecclesiastical participation in the work.
In the same spirit, republics and signorie engaged in town planning—in the destruction and reconstruction of town sites, in regulating building and use, and, through appointed conciliar committees, in the siting of new roads, squares, and fountains.The Carolingian Renaissance is a period in the Middle Ages characterized by the revival of scholarship, and tagged with the figure of Charlemagne.
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Humanity lives today in a “global village” where no people or nation can live in isolation from and indifference to what goes on elsewhere. Updated September JUMP TO: Terms & Glossaries / Timelines / Maps / Feudalism - Daily Life - Carolingian Empire/Charlemagne.
The Crusades - Heraldry - Chivalry - Knighthood / War, Warfare & Weaponry. Important People / Law / Science & Technology /. Castles / Medieval Women / Religion & The Church. The Black Death (Plague). The Carolingian Renaissance When someone says “renaissance” everyone thinks of the famous era that happened in Europe during the fourteenth century.
This renaissance was a cultural movement that included the reformation of education and artwork. This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.