The members of the Peoples Temple settlement in Guyana, under the direction of the Reverend Jim Jones, fed a poison-laced drink to their children, administered the potion to their infants, and drank it themselves. Their bodies were found lying together, arm in arm; over perished. How could such a tragedy occur?
Some of the techniques employed to make the group decision making process more effective and decision making more efficient in which creativity is encouraged, are as follows: This technique involves a group of people, usually between five and ten, sitting around a table, generating ideas in the form of free association.
The primary focus is on generation of ideas rather them on evaluation of ideas. If a large number of ideas can be generated, then it is likely that there will be a unique and creative idea among them.
All these ideas are written on the black board with a piece of chalk so that everybody can see every idea and try to improve upon such ideas. Brainstorming technique is very effective when the problem is comparatively specific and can be simply defined.
A complex problem can be broken up into parts and each part can be taken separately at a time. Nominal group technique is similar to brainstorming except that the approach is more structured.
Members form the group in name only and operate independently, generating ideas for solving the problem on their own, in silence and in writing. Members do not interact with each other so that strong personality domination is avoided.
It encourages individual creativity. The group coordinator either collects these written ideas or writes then on a large black board for everyone to see or he asks each member to speak out and then he writes it on the black board as he receives it.
These ideas are then discussed one by one in turn and each participant is encouraged to comment on these ideas for the purpose of clarification and improvement.
After all ideas are discussed, they are evaluated for their merits and drawbacks and each participating member is required to vote on each idea and assign it a rank on the basis of priority of each alternative solution. The idea with the highest aggregate ranking is selected as the final solution to the problem.
This technique is the modification of the nominal group technique, except that it involves obtaining the opinions of experts physically separated from each other and unknown to each other.
This insulates group members from the undue influence of others. Generally, the types of problems handled by this technique are not specific in nature or related to a particular situation at a given time.
For example, the technique could be used to understand the problems that could be created in the event of a war. The steps in the Delphi technique are: The problem is identified and a sample of experts is selected. These experts are asked to provide potential solutions through a series of carefully designed questionnaires.
Each expert completes and returns the initial questionnaire.
The results of the questionnaire are compiled at a central location and the central coordinator prepares a second questionnaire based on the previous answers. Each member receives a copy of the results along with the second questionnaire. Members are asked to review the results and respond to the second questionnaire.
The results typically trigger new solutions or cause changes in the original position. The process is repeated until a consensus is reached. The process is very time consuming and is primarily useful in illuminating broad range, long term complex issues such as future effects of energy shortages that might occur.
This technique is applicable only in certain situations, but is an excellent method when such a situation exists.Women's string-figure depicting "menstrual blood of three women", illustrating the Yolngu people's tribal mythology of menstrual synchrony Arnhem Land R "We Yolungu are a jealous people and have been since the days we lived in the bush in clans.
Conformity in Decision Making I recently was invited to join a few friends at a professional basketball game.
Tickets were free, parking was free and we sat in a private box. A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion is the _____ technique. A) reference groups B) nominal groups.
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Success is so easy, its almost comical. The title of this article is offensive to people who have an inner link between hard work and success. It is also offensive to people who believe success is dependent on circumstances and connections. A mnemonic (/ n ə ˈ m ɒ n ɪ k /, the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human regardbouddhiste.comics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval.