As early as BCE references suggest that the Ketuvim was starting to take shape, although it lacked a formal title. Many scholars believe that the limits of the Ketuvim as canonized scripture were determined by the Council of Jamnia c.
Academic Achievement Discourse These are difficult times for educators who believe that learning is worth pursuing for its own sake and that the chief purpose of school is the nurturing of students as whole human beings. Higher test scores seem to be the order of the day.
The adventure of learning, the wonder of nature and culture, the richness of human experience, and the delight in acquiring new abilities all seem to have been abandoned or severely curtailed in the classroom in this drive to meet quotas, deadlines, benchmarks, mandates, and targets.
The immediate cause of this crisis in education is the No Child Left Behind Act of NCLBwhich greatly expanded the role of the federal government in determining what goes on in the classroom. Its many provisions include annual testing of students in reading and mathematics and starting intesting in science as welland the requirement that schools make adequate yearly progress AYP incrementally on a year-by-year basis until all students reach percent proficiency in these areas by the year Failure of a school to maintain AYP will result in penalties for the school, including the right of students to receive special tutoring or to transfer to schools that do maintain AYP, and the eventual placement of a school on probation leading to possible government or commercial takeover.
Although NCLB has been hailed by many groups as a major step toward narrowing the achievement gap for poor and minority populations, its actual implementation has revealed a significant cluster of difficulties see for example, Archer, ; Karp, ; Klein, ; Lee, ; Olson, Aside from any specific problems inherent in the law itself, however, what seems most troubling about NCLB is that it represents the culmination of a movement that has been gathering steam in American education for over 80 years.
In this chapter, I will define the implicit assumptions of Academic Achievement Discourse, explore its history in U. In the next chapter, I will explore the assumptions, history, and positive consequences of engaging in Human Development Discourse. If we are to understand what conditions underlie the best schools in our country, we need to clarify whether we are talking about schools with the highest standardized test scores and adequate yearly progress, or whether there are other more human and humane elements that need to be taken into consideration.
In the field of philosophy and in the social sciences, the word has a more specific designation: A discourse is considered to be an institutionalized way of thinking, a social boundary defining what can be said about a specific topic Discourses are seen to affect our views on all things; in other words, it is not possible to escape discourse.
In other words, two educators can be looking at the same student and engage in vastly different speech acts and written communications about that student.Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
Best Schools. by Thomas Armstrong. Table of Contents. Chapter 1. Academic Achievement Discourse.
These are difficult times for educators who believe that learning is worth pursuing for its own sake and that the chief purpose of school is the nurturing of students as whole human beings. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
From time to time, I get a letter from some aspiring young writer, asking about how to write or how to get published.
My usual response is that the only way I know to become a good writer is to be a bad writer and keep on improving. A classic story of good versus evil, the Book of Esther is a unique account in the Bible.
It gives us a glimpse of the Jews who remained outside their homeland after the Exile, particularly the Jews living in the Persian Empire.
From time to time, I get a letter from some aspiring young writer, asking about how to write or how to get published. My usual response is that the only way I know to become a good writer is to be a bad writer and keep on improving.